Above: Titanic Captain Edward John Smith.
Although an experienced and long-serving captain at the time he skippered the Titanic, today, as then, there are mixed opinions on his performance as Captain. Smith's judgement, decision-making and his culpability or otherwise are still debated today. Here we present the key facts about the life and career of Captain Smith, and leave it to the reader to judge whether he was a hero or otherwise.
27 January 1850 - the date of Captain Smith's birth, in Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent, England.
86 Well Street - the address in Hanley where Edward was born (note: the house number is often, and wrongly, quoted as 51; this is a misreading of a reference to the 1851 census, within which Smith first appears).
07 October 1864 - the date on which Smith's father, Edward senior, died at home. Aged 59, he had finally succumbed to the phthisis (a form of pulmonary tuberculosis) from which he had been suffering for some time.
11 October 1864 - date Smith's father was buried, at Hanley municipal cemetery (in nearby Shelton).
1864 - the approximate year (exact date unknown) that Edward left Etruria British School and started work at Etruria Forge (this event may have been triggered by the death of his father).
14 - the approximate age at which Smith left school to work at the forge.
Smith was a capable worker and whilst still in his teens was trained to operate a huge Nasmyth hydraulic steam hammer, making large wrought-iron components for ships.
17 - the age at which Smith left the forge, possibly motivated by declining demand in the iron industry, and travelled to Liverpool to look for new opportunities working at sea.
Smith was following in the footsteps of his half-brother Joseph Hancock, who had gone to sea sometime in late 1849, early 1850. By the time Smith went to sea Joseph had risen to the rank of Captain.
05 February 1867 - the date on which Smith arrived in the city of Liverpool, travelling with friends and seeking work in the merchant navy. Smith signed up as an apprentice ship's 'Boy' (the lowest rank of ordinary seaman) on an American packet ship, the Senator Webber, under the captaincy of his half-brother Joseph.
12 February 1867 - the date on which Smith's first journey to sea began, a return trip to Hong Kong, then a busy and exotic international port, full of European, American, Australian and Asian shipping, and part of the British empire.
26 - the number of men and boys serving aboard the Senator Webber.
6 months - the length of the outward journey to Hong Kong, the Senator Webber arriving in August 1867.
200 - the approximate number of different ropes and their uses that Smith would have been required to learn, and quickly, an education that all sailors went through and giving the English language the idiom "knowing the ropes". This was just one area to learn, others including setting the sails, wind and weather, the intricacies of navigation, an understanding of draft and displacement, and learning how to load a ship to ensure an "even keel".
1871 - the year Smith was awarded a certificate of competency as Second Mate .
1873 - the year Smith gained his certificate as First Mate.
1875 - the year that Smith gained his Masters Certificate, allowing him to command vessels.
24 - the age at which Smith gained his Masters Certificate.
Edward was often referred to as 'E.J.' by his crew-mates. This may have started during his first-ever voyage, upon the Senator Webber, on which there were two Edward Smiths serving in the crew.
1877 - the year Smith first took command of a ship, the 1,000-ton trade vessel Lizzie Fennell, running goods between Britain and South America.
26 - the age at which Smith took command of the Lizzie Fennell, much younger than the average age that men typically gained a captaincy, which was then closer to 40.
1880 - the year Smith joined the White Star Line, the company he would stay with for the rest of his life, and served on his first passenger vessel, as fourth officer aboard the liner SS Celtic.
In joining White Star Line Smith moved down a number of ranks, going from Captain to a junior officer position, but was happy to do so in order to gain the opportunity to serve on the larger, finer and more prestigious ships of the North Atlantic passenger crossings.
1882 - the year that Smith was promoted to second officer of the SS Coptic.
1885 - the year that Smith became first officer of the SS Republic I.
1887 - the year that Captain Smith took command of the SS Republic I.
37 - the age at which Smith captained this ship, the first passenger vessel he commanded both for White Star Line and in his career.
1888 - the year Captain Smith was awarded his Extra Master Mariner's Certificate.
Captain Smith initially failed the examination for his Extra Master Mariner's Certificate, on his navigational skills. He was re-tested the following week and this time he passed.
1888 - the year Captain Smith joined the Royal Naval Reserve, meaning that he could be called upon to serve in the Royal Navy during wartime, and could add the letters 'RNR' after his name.
18 - the number of White Star Line vessels commanded during his career.
In all my experience, I have never been in any accident of any sort worth speaking about. I never saw a wreck and never have been wrecked, nor was I ever in any predicament that threatened to end in disaster of any sort.
- Captain Smith, speaking 5 years before the Titanic disaster
43 - the number of years of experience at sea at the time Smith took command of Titanic.
32 - the number of years served with the White Star Line.
26 - the number of years of experience Captain Smith had gained in traveling the North Atlantic at the time he captained the Titanic.
Above: The Titanic Captain Edward John Smith, depicted saving a child from the water, from a postcard published in 1912. This version of events is just one of many accounts from survivors. Others reported seeing him inside the wheelhouse of the bridge as it sank, whilst others claim to have seen Smith commit suicide using a pistol. No reliable account exists.
£200 - the annual bonus available to Captain Smith 'if no ship under his command was involved in an incident'.
£16,000 - the approximate value of the bonus in current money [?].
Well boys, do your best for the women and children, and look out for yourselves.
- The possible last words of Captain Smith, Commander of Titanic, as witnessed by Ship Steward Brown
15 April 1912 - the date of Captain Smith's death (he died when the ship sank).
62 - Smith's age at the time of his death. Some believe he intended to retire after completing Titanic's return trip, although the White Star Line had plans for Smith to command Gigantic on her maiden voyage.
13 January 1887 - the date of Smith's marriage to Sarah Eleanor Pennington, a farmer's daughter from Winwick in Cheshire, at St Oswald's Church in the village.
02 April 1898 - the date their daughter was born, Helen Melville Smith (Helen was born in Waterloo, Liverpool although the Smiths were then living in Southampton). Helen was the couples' only child.
Eleanor referred to her husband as 'Teddy' whilst he, through his correspondence whilst away at sea, referred to her as 'my only dear one'.
1908 - the year Smith moved to Southampton, after almost 40 years spent living (when not at sea) in Waterloo, near Liverpool.
28 April 1931 - the date on which Eleanor Smith died. Knocked down by a taxi cab in Cromwell Road, London, she suffered a fractured skull and passed away in St Mary Abbot's Hospital a little later. She was buried in the same grave as Captain Smith.
69 - Eleanor's age at death.
19 - the number of years that Eleanor lived as a widow, never remarrying.
15 November 1912 - the date on which Captain Smith's will was issued, in London, the sole beneficiary being his widow Eleanor.
£3,186 - the value of Captain Smith's effects (more accurately, £3,186, 4s, 6d).
£190-250,000 - the equivalent value of Smith's estate in 2016 money [?].
29 July 1914 - a bronze memorial statue of Captain Smith is unveiled in Beacon Park, Lichfield (the memorial was sculpted by Kathleen Scott, the wife of the Antarctic explorer Captain Robert Falcon Scott).
£740 - the original cost of the memorial.
© 2011 - Dave Fowler, History in Numbers. All third party trademarks are hereby acknowledged.